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All other companies are taxed at the Effective 1 Julythe VAT rate on computer hardware and software was reduced to 7. VAT on the transfer of land is also to be abolished. Essential agricultural implements and irrigation pumps had previously been excluded from certain taxes. To tax is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer an individual or legal entity by a state or the functional equivalent of a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law.

Taxes are also imposed by many subnational entities. Taxes consist of direct tax or indirect tax, and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent often but not always unpaid labour. The legal definition and the economic definition of taxes differ in that economists do not consider many transfers to governments to be taxes.

For example, some transfers to the public sector are comparable to prices.

Covid-19: Assessing The Impact On Construction & Infrastructure

Examples include tuition at public universities and fees for utilities provided by local governments. Governments also obtain resources by creating money printing bills and minting coinsthrough voluntary gifts contributions to public universities and museums ,by imposing penalties traffic finesby borrowing, and by confiscating wealth.

From the view of economists, a tax is a non-penal, yet compulsory transfer of resources from the private to the public sector levied on a basis of predetermined criteria and without reference to specific benefit received. The method of taxation and the government expenditure of taxes raised is often highly debated in politics and economics. When taxes are not fully paid, civil penalties such as fines or forfeiture or criminal penalties such as incarceration may be imposed on the non-paying entity or individual.

A direct tax is a form of tax is collected directly by the government from the persons who bear the tax burden. Taxable individuals file tax returns directly to the government. Examples of direct taxes are corporate taxes, income taxes, and transfer taxes. An indirect tax is a form of tax collected by mediators who transfer the taxes to the government, and also perform functions associated with filing tax returns. The customers bear the final tax burden.

Examples of indirect taxes are sales tax and value added tax VAT. There are other types of taxes, which may either be direct tax or indirect taxes, including capital gains tax, corporation tax, consumption tax, inheritance tax, property tax, excise duty, retirement tax, tariffs, wealth tax or net worth tax, toll tax, and poll tax. Money provided by taxation have been used by states and their functional equivalents throughout history to carry out many functions.

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Some of these include expenditures on war, the enforcement of law and public order, protection of property, economic infrastructure roads, legal tender, enforcement of contracts, etc. Governments also use taxes to fund welfare and public services.

These services can include education systems, health care systems, pensions for the elderly, unemployment benefits, and public transportation.Metrics details. This study evaluates the impact of an increase in cigarette tax in Taiwan in terms of the effects it has on the overall economy and the health benefits that it brings.

The multisector computable general equilibrium CGE model was used to simulate the impact of reduced cigarette consumption resulting from a new tax scheme on the entire economy gains and on health benefits. The results predict that because of the new tax scheme, there should be a marked reduction in cigarette consumption but a notable increase in health benefits that include saving between 28, and 56, lives. Overall, the increased cigarette excise tax will be beneficial in terms of both the health of the general public and the economy as a whole.

Peer Review reports. Particularly since Taiwan joined the WTO inthe government has been taking serious measures to gain greater control over tobacco usage. The cost of cigarettes to Taiwan consumers has historically been considerably less than that to people in other countries [ 12 ].

On average, 77 minutes of working time is required to purchase one pack of cigarettes in India, 62 minutes in Indonesia, and 56 minutes in China; contrast this with Taiwan where a pack can be bought after only 7 to 10 minutes of work. In4. As significant an economic burden as this had been, it was obviously worthy of policy attention. Thus, on January 1,a new tax scheme was enacted in Taiwan. Taxation on cigarette products is universally recognized as an effective way to reduce tobacco use.

Inthe World Bank concluded that a 10 percent increase in tobacco price would reduce tobacco use by 4 percent in developed countries and by about 8 percent in developing countries World Bank, ; Chaloupka et al. Several studies have demonstrated that increased taxes have been particularly effective in reducing tobacco use among youth and young adults [ 7 — 10 ]. The greater effect of higher prices on youth may be a result of lower income, greater peer pressure, less concern about long-term health effects and future health costs, as well as less likelihood of being addicted.

Chaloupka and Grossman used data on overeighth- tenth- and twelfth-grade students to examine the effect price and a variety of tobacco control policies had on youth smoking consumption. They estimated that the overall price elasticity of demand for teenage smokers was Given that tobacco use among youth is considerably more responsive to price and that most smokers take up smoking before the age of 20, significant increases in tobacco taxes should be effective in producing long-run reductions in smoking among youth.

In most countries, differential taxation rates are applied depending on filter type, cigarette length, size of the relevant factory size, or retail price. A tax incidence can be as low as 8—10 percent of the retail price of domestic hand-rolled kretek in Indonesia and cheroots in Myanmar, or as high as 85 percent for imported tobacco in Sri Lanka [ 11 ].

True that a 40 percent increase would be considered high for most other products, but for cigarettes, it is still lower than the 66 percent or more in high-income countries, such as the United States [ 6 ]. In that raising cigarette tax has been proven to be highly effective in reducing cigarette consumption, a cigarette tax increase has become a preferred policy for tobacco control in many countries [ 12 — 17 ].

In the debate on cigarette tax policy, nevertheless, one economic counterargument is that because of the expected reduced consumption, such a tax would eventually lead to a reduction in not only tobacco production but also in tax revenues. In turn, reduced tobacco production would contribute to significant reductions in employment in the tobacco sector, including farming and manufacturing, and other related fields, such as general wholesaling and retailing.

Consequently, opponents to cigarette tax increases contend that the adverse impact on the macro-economy should be considered above all else. Once the new tax was in effect in Taiwan, cigarette consumption plunged almost 25 percent, from At the same time, the former government tobacco monopoly started to incrementally phase out tobacco production. When the Taiwan market is adjusted to meet WTO conditions, it can be expected that Taiwan tobacco leaf production will continue to fall.

One market scenario is that, eventually, low-quality, low-priced tobacco will be imported from non-U. An increase in cigarette taxes can be justified on several grounds. It is a relatively efficient tool for generating tax revenues, an effective approach to improving the overall state of health of the public and reducing health care costs, and an appropriate way to enhance the economic efficiency [ 6 ]. Despite the relatively low price elasticity of demand for tobacco products and the fact that taxes account for a significant share of tobacco price, even a modest tax increase would effectively increase tax revenues.

Estimates suggest that in the short-run, a 10 percent increase in cigarette tax would lead to an average increase of nearly 7 percent in cigarette tax revenues [ 6 ]. As a rule, a change in the tax rate levied upon a commodity can lead to smaller, a commensurate, or a greater increase in the retail price of that commodity. In response to increased cigarette taxation, cigarette prices have, in some cases, been found to increase even more than the amount of the tax increase itself [ 19 ].

Value-added tax

Recent studies have found, in fact, that prices in Taiwan and South Africa increased by much more than the amount of the increase in tax [ 2021 ].We at Fitch Solutions have now made downward adjustments to our Construction Industry Value real growth forecasts for markets in every region globally. These revisions have been most keenly felt across the Asia region, in part due to them being in the first wave of markets impacted, as well as having the greatest exposure to China.

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Subsequently, our revisions in regions such as Europe, Africa, MENA and the Americas are mostly less severe, but given that the situation in some of these markets is only now beginning to develop, we are flagging more acute downside risks to our outlook for these regions. Our Global forecast for growth in the construction sector now stands at 0. This represents a decline of 2. With downside risk to our market forecasts still prominent, we would note that one of our principal Key Themes forthat the global construction sector will accelerate relative towill now not play out as anticipated.

A selection of more detailed analysis of our downward revisions is available below, noting that we continue to review of forecasts and further adjustments are likely:. When assessing the impacts to our forecasts we are using a timeline approach to adjust our forecasts, noting that there has generally emerged a pattern of reaction from governments and companies which will impact on construction activity and project planning:.

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Thank you for registering. To read the article please click on the link we have sent to your email address. Key View Our Global forecast for growth in the construction sector now stands at 0.

Recovery from the slowdown in growth will depend on what tools governments use during the crisis and how much fiscal space that leaves for stimulus which could benefit the construction sector.

Global Revisions Summary. When assessing the impacts to our forecasts we are using a timeline approach to adjust our forecasts, noting that there has generally emerged a pattern of reaction from governments and companies which will impact on construction activity and project planning: Immediate Impacts Felt Universally The preeminent driver of downgrades to our Construction Industry Value forecasts has been the disruption to normal business activity.

We note an increasing number of companies are actively halting operations even when not mandated to by governments in order to protect staff, and that as the intensity of restrictions is ramped up in a country, construction sites will eventually have to shut. We expect most construction sectors to avoid a complete collapse in activity, however, given that some projects will see construction activity continue, particularly if sites are unsafe to leave or if it is a project in the healthcare sector.

Furthermore, we note that while large construction projects with high numbers of people on site will be more heavily scrutinised for ensuring compliance with lockdown protocols be them company or government-imposedthere will be smaller value, but more numerous projects undertaken by smaller companies and individuals which will continue to operate.

Government capacity - and in some cases funding - will be directed towards combatting the Covid outbreak, to the detriment of ongoing projects and the project pipeline.

In many instances, normal policy formation and legislative processes are suspended or at least being disrupted, in addition to local bureaucratic capacity being diverted to responding to the virus.

As such, we have seen government procurement cease, renewable energy auctions cancelled, and planned project enabling legislation delayed.

Additionally, governments have been altering their budgeted expenditures away from fixed investment to more pressing needs, which will then be exacerbated by slowing economic activity and will, in turn, reduce tax receipts for governments and lower future investment potential. Investment into new projects from the private sector will also slow throughout the Covid outbreak, both due to operational restrictions as well as uncertainty over the strength of the economy which emerges from lockdown.Policy Area Trade, Investment and Growth.

G20 Argentina. Governments use tax expenditures to boost investment, innovation and employment. However, these schemes are largely opaque, costly and often ineffective in reaching their stated goals.

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They also frequently trigger unwanted side effects. In order to improve the performance of these tools, we present three concrete policy proposals: First, governments should increase transparency on tax benefits.

G20 members should take the lead on this with frequent and comprehensive tax expenditure reports. Second, G20 governments should improve the design of tax incentives with the aim of minimizing the generation of windfall profits and negative spillover effects within and across in particular, on poorer countries.

Third, governments should phase out tax expenditures that are environmentally harmfulincluding tax incentives for fossil fuels and other schemes that promote an unsustainable use of natural resources.

Tax expenditures are costly and used widely as public policy instruments by governments worldwide. In the United States, tax expenditures are estimated to have cost the federal government more than 1. Strikingly though, transparency on the magnitude of existing tax expenditures is limited, and new tax benefits are being introduced regularly without adequate scrutiny.

The picture does not improve when looking at developing economies as only a few African countries publish figures on tax expenditures, and in the East Asia and Pacific region, only the Philippines and Papua New Guinea compute and report tax expenditure estimates AfDB et al.

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As a result of the general lack of transparency, these schemes are not as a rule subject to sound cost-benefit analyses. Indeed, while studies assessing the effectiveness and efficiency in reaching the stated goals of tax expenditures are crucial, they remain rare. Tax incentives for investment are a case in point. Most governments grant a myriad of tax benefits to stimulate investment. These include tax expenditures such as tax holidays, patent boxes, and special fiscal regimes offered in special economic zones SEZs to attract foreign direct investment FDI.

This is a crucial issue not only for G20 economies, but also when it comes to domestic revenue mobilisation in developing economies. Clearly, more technical cooperation in this field is needed. Moreover, several tax expenditures are environmentally harmful. Tax exemptions for the production and consumption of fossil fuels provide a concrete example. Many further schemes incentivize an inefficient and unsustainable use of natural resources.

Yet, the negative environmental externalities triggered by such tax expenditures are very often neglected and, hence they are hardly ever internalized to assess the social cost of these schemes.

Against this background, and as recommended by the T20 last year, tax expenditure is an area on which the G20 can and should act urgently Brosio et al. G20 member countries should report frequently and comprehensively on the fiscal cost of tax expenditures. Improving reporting on tax expenditure by systematically estimating and publishing their fiscal cost is crucial for governments to better scrutinize the effectiveness and efficiency of these measures.

It is also critical to enhance transparency and accountability. Unfortunately, progress in the field has been rare and — if anything — was mainly based on unilateral initiatives rather than on a coordinated strategy among G20 governments.

First, based on national tax laws and methodologies, governments should systematically estimate and report the revenue foregone through tax expenditures — ideally disaggregated by e. In that context, pulling together existing official tax expenditure reports in a cross-country database is a low hanging fruit that would make an important contribution towards transparency. There are, at least, three initiatives by international governmental organizations moving in this direction.Taxation as an instrument of fiscal policy is a critical contributor to revenue generation capacity of government and by extension a stimulator of growth and development.

This study merely added to the vast literature on VAT — a component of taxation. By employing the Error correction model, the study ascertained how VAT has impacted on Nigerian economic growth. The result was further re-enforced by assessing the performance of the different sectors in the Nigerian economy in contributing to VAT revenue, with a view to showcase their effect on economic growth in the new millennium. The causal relationship is tested using Granger Causality.

Both economic variables fluctuated greatly over the period though VAT Revenue was more stable. This study also recommends that all identified problems and administrative loopholes should be plugged for VAT Revenue to contribute significantly to economic growth of the country. This should be done on the realization that any action taken on either VAT Revenue or the GDP will take four years to become effective. Home Journals Conferences Books About us.

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Abstract Taxation as an instrument of fiscal policy is a critical contributor to revenue generation capacity of government and by extension a stimulator of growth and development.Apart from raising revenue, taxes are considered as instruments of control and regulation with the aim of influencing the pattern of consumption, production and distribution. Taxes thus affect an economy in various ways, although the effects of taxes may not necessarily be good. There are same bad effects of taxes too.

Taxation can influence production and growth. Such effects on production are analysed under three heads:. Imposition of taxes results in the reduction of disposable income of the taxpayers.

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This will reduce their expenditure on necessaries which are required to be consumed for the sake of improving efficiency. As efficiency suffers ability to work declines. This ultimately adversely affects savings and investment.

However, this happens in the case of poor persons. Taxation on rich persons has the least effect on the efficiency and ability to work. Not all taxes, however, have adverse effects on the ability to work. There are some harmful goods, such as cigarettes, whose consumption has to be reduced to increase ability to work.

That is why high rate of taxes are often imposed on such harmful goods to curb their consumption. But all taxes adversely affect ability to save. Since rich people save more than the poor, progressive rate of taxation reduces savings potentiality.

This means low level of investment. Lower rate of investment has a dampening effect on economic growth of a country. The effects of taxation on the willingness to work, save and invest are partly the result of money burden of tax and partly the result of psychological burden of tax. Taxes which are temporarily imposed to meet any emergency e.

Economic Effects of Taxation: Top 6 Effects

But if taxes are expected to continue in future, it will reduce the willingness to work and save of the taxpayers. Taxpayers have a feeling that every tax is a burden.

This psychological state of mind of the taxpayers has a disincentive effect on the willingness to work. They feel that it is not worth taking extra responsibility or putting in more hours because so much of their extra income would be taken away by the government in the form of taxes. However, if taxpayers are desirous of maintaining their existing standard of living in the midst of payment of large taxes, they might put in extra efforts to make up for the income lost in tax.

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It is suggested that effects of taxes upon the willingness to work, save and invest depends on the income elasticity of demand. Income elasticity of demand varies from individual to individual. If the income demand of an individual taxpayer is inelastic, a cut in income consequent upon the imposition of taxes will induce him to work more and to save more so that the lost income is at least partially recovered.

assessing the effects of a value added tax policy on the wine sectors

On the other hand, the desire to work and save of those people whose demand for income is elastic will be affected adversely.

Thus, we have conflicting views on the incentives to work. It would seem logical that there must be a disincentive effect of taxes at some point but it is not clear at what level of taxation that crucial point would be reached.A value-added tax VAT or V.

It is levied on the price of a product or service at each stage of production, distribution or sale to the end consumer. If the ultimate consumer is a business which collects and pays to the government VAT on its products or services, it can reclaim the tax paid. It is similar to and is often compared to a sales tax. VAT essentially compensates for the shared service and infrastructure provided in a certain locality by a state and funded by its taxpayers that were used in the provision of that product or service.

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Not all localities require VAT to be charged, and exports are often exempt. VAT is usually implemented as a destination-based tax, where the tax rate is based on the location of the consumer and applied to the sales price. There are two main methods of calculating VAT: the credit-invoice or invoice-based method, and the subtraction or accounts-based method. Using the credit-invoice method, sales transactions are taxed, with the customer informed of the VAT on the transaction, and businesses may receive a credit for VAT paid on input materials and services.

The credit-invoice method is the most widely employed method, used by all national VATs except for Japan. Using the subtraction method, at the end of a reporting period, a business calculates the value of all taxable sales then subtracts the sum of all taxable purchases and the VAT rate is applied to the difference.

The subtraction method VAT is currently only used by Japan, although subtraction method VATs, often using the name "flat tax", have been part of many recent tax reform proposals by US politicians.

assessing the effects of a value added tax policy on the wine sectors

Recognizing the experiment as successful, the French introduced it in Initially directed at large businesses, it was extended over time to include all business sectors. A study found that the adoption of VAT is strongly linked to countries with corporatist institutions.

The amount of VAT is decided by the state as a percentage of the price of the goods or services provided. As its name suggests, value-added tax is designed to tax only the value added by a business on top of the services and goods it can purchase from the market. To understand what this means, consider a production process e. Each VAT-registered company in the chain will charge VAT as a percentage of the selling price, and will reclaim the VAT paid to purchase relevant products and services; the effect is that net VAT is paid on the value added.

When an end-consumer makes a purchase subject to VAT—which is not in this case refundable—they are paying VAT for the entire production process e. The VAT collected by the state from each company is the difference between the VAT on sales and the VAT on purchase of goods and services upon which the product depends, i.

The standard way to implement a value-added tax involves assuming a business owes some fraction on the price of the product minus all taxes previously paid on the good.

By the method of collectionVAT can be accounts-based or invoice-based. Buyers who are subject to VAT on their own sales output tax consider the tax on the purchase invoices as input tax and can deduct the sum from their own VAT liability.

The difference between output tax and input tax is paid to the government or a refund is claimed, in the case of negative liability. Under the accounts based methodno such specific invoices are used. Instead, the tax is calculated on the value added, measured as a difference between revenues and allowable purchases. Most countries today use the invoice method, the only exception being Japan, which uses the accounts method.

By the timing of collection[8] VAT as well as accounting in general can be either accrual or cash based. Cash basis accounting is a very simple form of accounting.

assessing the effects of a value added tax policy on the wine sectors

When a payment is received for the sale of goods or services, a deposit is made, and the revenue is recorded as of the date of the receipt of funds—no matter when the sale had been made. Cheques are written when funds are available to pay bills, and the expense is recorded as of the cheque date—regardless of when the expense had been incurred.

The primary focus is on the amount of cash in the bank, and the secondary focus is on making sure all bills are paid. Little effort is made to match revenues to the time period in which they are earned, or to match expenses to the time period in which they are incurred. Accrual basis accounting matches revenues to the time period in which they are earned and matches expenses to the time period in which they are incurred.

While it is more complex than cash basis accounting, it provides much more information about your business. The accrual basis allows you to track receivables amounts due from customers on credit sales and payables amounts due to vendors on credit purchases.

The accrual basis allows you to match revenues to the expenses incurred in earning them, giving you more meaningful financial reports.